Different Narrations On The History of Pashtuns

An English historian and linguist writes that, Jews were known to be quite a “stubborn” race. He, however, rejects the notion that Pashtuns were the lost tribe (Benjamin tribe) of Israel based on the assumption that why would the Jews prefer a wandering life in mountainous country (Afghanistan) rather than Kingdom of Heaven (Israel). Nonetheless, he raises the idea that maybe because the Persian King Cyrus the Great who reigned in 500 BC, and was known to have a habit of transporting people here and there, transported those extensively “stubborn” and troublesome Jews far from Israel to the plains of Persia now known as Afghanistan. And from there rose the Pashtuns. (Refernece: The Pathans: 550 B.C.-A.D. 1957. Pages: 24-27)

This theory of Pashtuns stemming from the Benjamin tribe of Israel has directly come from the research book entitled “Makhzan-e-Afghani” which was written by Niamat Ullah Harvi in 1612 AD who was a scholar at Jahangir court. Many orientalists, both eastern and western, have quoted and critically evaluated this research. Besides its acceptance, Sir Percy Sykes in his book “The History of Afghanistan” was against this theory for instance. Another English orientalist George Tate was against this theory too in his book “The Kingdom of Afghanistan”. 

If anything, there is another book that I don’t remember now, but I have read it, does, however, argue that in all the claims being made by different races about being one of the lost tribes of Israel, apparently the Pashtuns have the strongest ‘claim’.

Life of Jews Under Abbasids Caliphate

Philip K. Hitti writes in his book “History of the Arabs” a short account of life of Jews under Abbasid Caliphate ( 750 – 1258):

As one of the “protected” peoples the Jews fared on the whole even better than the Christians during the Abbasid era of Caliphate, and that in spite of several unfavorable references in Quran. Jews were fewer and did not therefore present such a problem. In 985, al-Maqdasi found most of the money-changers and bankers in Syria to be Jews, and most of the clerks and physicians Christians. Under several Caliphs, particularly al-Mu’tadid (892-902), we read of more than one Jew in the capital and the provinces assuming responsible state positions. In Baghdad itself the Jews maintained a good-sized colony which continued to flourish until the fall of the city. All Jews owed allegiance to the Baghdad Caliphate.

Short Account of Moors Invasion of Spain and Life In Its Early Days

Syed Ameer Ali writes in his book “A short history of Saracens” that, the viceroyalty of Musa bin Nusayr (then Viceroy of parts of Africa under Muslim domination in the time Umayyad Caliph Walid-I) was almost equal to that of Hajjaj bin Yusuf’s governance in the East in extent; but its importance in the demand for administrative ability and general-ship was far greater. It extended from the western confines of Egypt to the shores of the Atlantic.

Whilst Africa was enjoying the blessings of toleration and justice, and was advancing with rapid strides in the path of material prosperity under the Muslim rule, the neighbouring peninsula of Spain groaned under the iron heel of the Gothic Christians. Never was the condition of the country or of the people so bad or so miserable as under the grinding yoke of the Gothic kings. As in the Roman times, the rich, the noble and the privileged classes in general were exempt from taxation ; the middle classes, upon whom alone fell the public burdens, were reduced to ruin and misery. Industrial activity was killed by heavy imposts ; there was no manufacture or commerce ; and a terrible sterility, almost equal to that which has fallen on the land since the expulsion of the Muslims, prevailed all over the Peninsula.

The Jews, who had settled in large numbers in the Peninsula, had suffered terribly from the persecutions of  the Kings, the clergy and the nobles. The old, as a matter of grace, were allowed to retain their religion; but the young were to be brought up in the Christian faith. All marriage within the community was forbidden, and a Jewish slave was henceforth to marry a Christian slave. Such was the punishment meted out to the Jews by the bishops, who held all the power in the land.

The impoverished and ruined citizen, the wretched slave, the miserable serf, the persecuted and hunted Jew, all waited for the relief which was so long in coming. It was in the moment of their acutest agony that the deliverance arrived from an unexpected quarter.Tariq bin Ziyad, who landed at Gibraltar on Thursday 8th Rajjab 92 A.H., April 30th, conquered the Spain. With barely 12,000 men Tariq bin Ziyad defeated a disciplined army of at least five times as large. In less than two years the whole of Spain, as far as the Pyrenees, was in the hands of Muslims. Portugal was conquered a few years later, and was formed into a separate province under the name of al-Gharb, “the West.” A province of modern Portugal is still called Algrave.

The ruthless intolerance and fierce persecution which had characterised the former government made way for a large-hearted toleration under the Muslim rule. The persecuted and downtrodden Jews obtained the right to follow their religion without let or hindrance, and the Christians were secured in the unmolested enjoyment of their faith and laws, the administration of which was entrusted to their own judges. No one was troubled about his faith ; every man, woman, or child was free to worship as he liked or what he liked. The Christians had governors of their own race to collect their taxes and to settle their disputes. Every branch of the public service, and all offices of rank and emolument were open equally to Muslims, Jews, and Christians.

Historian Stanley Lane-Poole writes in his book “The Moors in Spain” about the “early days” of Moors administration of Spain: “The Moors organised that wonderful kingdom of Cordoba, which was the marvel of the Middle Ages, and which, when all Europe was plunged in barbaric ignorance and strife, alone held the torch of learning and civilization bright and shinning before the Western world.” Syed Ameer Ali remarks on this: “May modern government might well take a lesson from the Muslim administration of Spain”. When Syed Ameer Ali wrote this Pakistan hadn’t came into being otherwise it would specifically have been about “Pakistan” to take a lesson.

Philip K Hitti writes in his book “History of the Arabs” (Page 551) regarding the period of Christian reconquest (reconquista) that started as early as the fall of the Umayyad caliphate in the eleventh century. In fact, Spanish historians consider the battle of Covadonga in 718 AD, in which the Asturian chieftain Pelayo checked Muslim advance, as marking the actual beginning of the reconquest. Had the Muslims in the 8th century destroyed the last vestiges of Christian power in the mountainous north, the subsequent story of the Spain might have been entirely different.

Choosing The Right Words For Condemnation

Today was indeed a bad day when Israeli Defence Forces attacked on Freedom Frotilla which was bound for Gaza to provide aid to the stranded people there. Well, nearly everyone is aware of today’s catastrophe so I’d not go into much of the details. However, I condemn the perennial barbarity of Israeli Government, in today’s case too.

My sole concern of now is that when we condemn such acts of barbarism, we need not be ambiguous with the words. It, at times, give a wrong impression to the people we’re strangers to. However, sometimes one lack the right words to express, and even in such case the reader shouldn’t jump to a conclusion too. Asking for a clarification is fine as well. Though one must be careful with his/her words while criticizing. Bombing on Israel is no solution. A horde of Israelis condemn the act of barbarism by Israeli Defence Forces. It’s fine to condemn the act of the particular source rather — and in this case the Israeli Government — than condemning the whole country. In the same way, one can always condemn the unethical behavior of American Government, but it’s not fine to abuse or blame or condemn the whole America. Why to talk about killing or condemning a common American person — be it a Jew or a Christian? The Freedom Flotilla carried 750+ people from 10’s of different countries with different religions including Christians, Jews, Muslims, Buddhists etc.

I prefer to choose my words carefully, but at times I do make unintentional mistakes. In any case, and to be sure, my intentions are neat. God knows that. But the other person totally stranger to me and reading my posts or listening to my words may not know what my intentions are.

I don’t doubt the intention of many other people condemning the state of Israel. But I’d suggest them re-again to avert from ambiguity — be precise and particular rather than general.

If at anytime I’m found using ambiguous words — anyone can feel free to correct me.

Thanks to one of my friend who brought my attention towards this matter.


Strolling in the streets of Karachi today after a long time, I found this wall chalking which states:

Yahoodian ka sirf ek ilaaj — Al Jihad – Al Jihad

It made me mulled over the significances of “Jihad” – and drove my mind back to good old days of School where in Islamiat class our teacher used to tell that the best type of Jihad is “Jihad-e-Bin’Nafs”. Often we asked our teacher in a state of disarray, why a Jihad carried out through weapon or by force isn’t superior than Jihad-e-Bin’Nafs? And we were always clarified in a very thoughtful way I still remember today: If you beat Satan inside, you can make weak the Satan that is outside.

And today, Islam or rather Muslim is being held on under a threat of this wrong Islamic Ideology by some declarers of Islam – which has made Jihad-e-Bin’Nafs a secondary set of Jihad while other types of Jihad has been implicitly declared as primary.

I’m waiting for a day to arrive when in the streets of West I’ll find such wall chalking: The only treatment of terrorism is – bomb the Muslims.

You know what will happen then? Muslims will start exclaiming over it, will also call it utmost racism. Whereas, we’ll never come across with those wall chalking in the streets of an Asian country – an Islamic republic – our own – that’s also spreading broad hatred against the Jews – all the Jews in general. Nevertheless, generalization isn’t good. I hope we’ll learn this someday.